TC Williams High School
Athletes gain most from the amount of carbohydrates stored in the body.
Fats provide body fuel; how much fat is used as fuel will depend on the exercise and condition of athlete (strength, weight, endurance etc.)
The need of protein will increase depending on exercise and the intensity
WATER IS CRITICAL!
Dehydration can lead to muscle cramps and fatigue
Good diet, training and conditioning truly help elite athletes
What is good for athletes?
Carbohydrates yield more energy per unit of oxygen than fats
They provide about 40-50% of energy requirement
Higher intensity exercise requires more utilization of carbohydrates
Complex carbohydrates include: spaghetti, lasagna, cereals and other grains
Simple carbohydrates include: fruit, milk, honey and sugar
WATER IS CRUCIAL
Start hydrated, stay hydrated and keep hydrated after exercise
Recommendations for hydration.
Drink fluids frequently
2-3 cups water
2 hours before
2-2 1/2 cups water
1/2 hour before
2 cups water
Every 10-15 minutes during the event
1/2 cup cool (45-55 degrees) water
2 cups fluid for each pound lost
Drink fluids frequently (it may take 36 hours to rehydrate completely).
Just like carbohydrates fat provides fuel and energy
Long duration exercises typically generate the energy from fats stored in our bodies
Up to 75% of energy demand during prolonged aerobic work will come from fats.
Protein is the last source to provide energy for the body, it comes after carbohydrates and fats
The need for protein can be increased through athletes exercise frequency and type. The extra protein not needed in exercise then it is stored as fat.
ADA reports that a protein intake of 10 to 12 percent of total calories is sufficient. Most authorities recommend that endurance athletes eat between 1.2-1.4 grams protein per kg of body weight per day; resistance and strength-trained athletes may need as much as 1.6-1.7 grams protein per kg of body weight. (A kilogram equals 2.2 pounds.)
Varied diets will provide more than enough protein as caloric intake increases
Furthermore, Americans tend to eat more than the recommended amounts of protein. Excess protein can deprive the athlete of more efficient fuel and can lead to dehydration. Protein supplements are unnecessary and not recommended.
Vitamins and Minerals:
B vitamins are needed for producing energy from fuel sources in a diet. Caloric intake can help increase the sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals we need as athletes.
Carbohydrates and proteins are perfect sources of vitamins.
Female athletes lack riboflavin (vitamin B2); milk is a good source of vitamin B2—will help provide protein and calcium
Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat soluble vitamins our body stores, and if there are too many fat-soluble vitamins they have toxic effects
Minerals are needed in performance- athletes need sodium, potassium, iron and calcium but heavy exercise can affect the body’s supply
Sweating increases concentration of salt in the body, DON’T USE salt tablets after workouts, can remove water from your cells and cause weakness in muscles.
Avoid excessive amounts of sodium and beverages containing sodium might be okay after endurance events
Bananas, potatoes and oranges help supply us with necessary potassium.
Iron is needed to carry oxygen via blood cells in the body and very important minerals for athletes.
Female athletes between 13-19 have inadequate supplies of iron
Hardcore female athletes can have irregular monthly periods which conserve iron stores
To avoid excess iron eat fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads and cereals
Calcium is helpful in bone health and muscle function. Most female athletes need to have large supplies of calcium to avoid calcium loss from bones. Osteoporosis can be a cause with calcium loss. Choosing low-fat dairy products are best source of calcium
Biggest meal should be eaten between 3 to 4 hours before event, helps give you optimal digestion and energy
High in starch,like bread, pasta, fruits and vegetables
DON’T EAT HIGH-SUGAR FOOD before exercise can be dangerous—cause dehydration and cramping and nausea
Carbs 1 ½ to 2 hours is not good before sport
Less high fat foods and avoid caffeine
LOTS OF FLUIDS BEFORE
A small meal around 30 minutes after with carbohydrates, protein and fat are beneficial
Protein is very good after workout, and carbohydrates will help replenish glycogen (sugar)
Sometimes eating soon after a workout can make it difficult as athletes might be nauseous
Drinking carbohydrates that contain protein are good, or fruit and popsicles are better than not eating
DON’T EVER USE SUPPLEMENTS in replacement for meals
Has many side effects including weight gain, dehydration and stress on kidney and liver
Source/ more information available : http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09362.html